INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
FOOD COLOURS, EMULSIFIERS, STABILIZERS,
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series
The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met in Rome, 27 May - 4 June 1969
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Health Organization
Thirteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, FAO
did not appear to absorb any colour from the gastro-intestinal tract (Fournier, 1950). Another group of rats was given 0.25 per cent. of TiO
in the diet for a week. Ninety-two per cent. of the administered pigment appeared in the faeces. It was concluded that no absorption took place (Lloyd, et al. 1955). Five male volunteers ingested 5 g of N.F. Grade Ti0
suspended in milk on three consecutive days. Urines were collected for five days after starting the ingestion. No detectable change in urinary titanium levels was detected, thus indicating absence of any significant absorption of titanium ion (West, B. & Wyzan, H. 1963).
Rat oral >12 000 as Ba, Bi, Brown & Mastromatteo, Ca and Pb titanate 1962 i.p. 2000-5300 as above
Rats were given 0.66 g/kg body weight of pigment for 15 days. No titanium was found in the blood, liver, kidney and urine (sensitivity of analysis 10 g) Fournier, 1950).
. Two groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0 per cent. or 10 per cent. N.F. grade TiO
in their diet for 30-34 days. All animals remained healthy and normal. Weight gain and food intake were comparable for the two groups. No relevant gross pathology was observed. No evidence of an increase in titanium was found in any of seven different tissues analyzed except muscle where the increase was 0.1 ppm compared with control tissues (West, B.Wyzan, H., 1963).
. Three groups of two dogs were given orally 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g of TiO
. Every five days the dose was increased by the same amounts. One dog of each group was kept for one month, the other for two months. No toxic effects were seen (Vernetti-Blina, 1928). Three dogs received weekly s.c. injections of a suspension of TiO
in oil; the initial dose of 500 mg was raised progressively to 3 g over seven weeks. A fourth dog received initially 250 mg/kg rising to 2 g/kg body weight. Three dogs survived without adverse effects, the fourth died of a cause unconnected with the administration of TiO
for 390 days. The dog received 9 g/day, rabbits and cats 3 g/day, guinea pigs 0.6 g/day. Two additional cats received 3 g pigment daily for 175 and 300 days respectively. No adverse effects were seen and histopathological examination revealed no abnormality. There was less than 5 mg of Ti in bile, heart, spleen and skeletal muscle (Lehmann & Herget, 1927).
, 1343 Lehman, K. B, & Herget, L. (1927)
, 793 Lloyd, L. E., Rutherford, B. E. & Crampton, E. W. (1955)
, 1516 West, B. & Wyzan, H. (1963) Unpublished report by American Cyanamid Company